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M. Tevfik Dorak




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58.        Parham P. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor diversity: balancing signals in the natural killer cell response. Immunol Lett. 2004;92:11-13.

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60.        Parham P. Immunogenetics of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. Mol Immunol. 2005;42:459-462.

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63.        Martin AM, Freitas EM, Witt CS, Christiansen FT. The genomic organization and evolution of the natural killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:268-280.

64.        Shilling HG, Guethlein LA, Cheng NW, et al. Allelic polymorphism synergizes with variable gene content to individualize human KIR genotype. J Immunol. 2002;168:2307-2315.

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67.        Liu WR, Kim J, Nwankwo C, Ashworth LK, Arm JP. Genomic organization of the human leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors within the leukocyte receptor complex on chromosome 19q13.4. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:659-669.

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73.        Toneva M, Lepage V, Lafay G, et al. Genomic diversity of natural killer cell receptor genes in three populations. Tissue Antigens. 2001;57:358-362.

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76.        Cook MA, Moss PA, Briggs DC. The distribution of 13 killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor loci in UK blood donors from three ethnic groups. Eur J Immunogenet. 2003;30:213-221.

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78.        Young NT, Rust NA, Dallman MJ, Cerundolo V, Morris PJ, Welsh KI. Independent contributions of HLA epitopes and killer inhibitory receptor expression to the functional alloreactive specificity of natural killer cells. Hum Immunol. 1998;59:700-712.

79.        Hiby SE, Walker JJ, O'Shaughnessy KM, et al. Combinations of maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C genes influence the risk of preeclampsia and reproductive success. J Exp Med 2004;200:957-965.

80.        Khakoo SI, Thio CL, Martin MP, et al. HLA and NK cell inhibitory receptor genes in resolving hepatitis C virus infection. Science 2004;305:872-874.

81.        Carrington M, Wang S, Martin MP, et al. Hierarchy of resistance to cervical neoplasia mediated by combinations of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor and human leukocyte antigen loci. J Exp Med 2005;201:1069-1075.

82.        Winter CC, Gumperz JE, Parham P, Long EO, Wagtmann N. Direct binding and functional transfer of NK cell inhibitory receptors reveal novel patterns of HLA-C allotype recognition. J Immunol. 1998;161:571-577.

83.        Witt CS, Dewing C, Sayer DC, Uhrberg M, Parham P, Christiansen FT. Population frequencies and putative haplotypes of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor sequences and evidence for recombination. Transplantation. 1999;68:1784-1789.

84.        Crum KA, Logue SE, Curran MD, Middleton D. Development of a PCR-SSOP approach capable of defining the natural killer cell inhibitory receptor (KIR) gene sequence repertoires. Tissue Antigens. 2000;56:313-326.

85.        Maxwell LD, Wallace A, Middleton D, Curran MD. A common KIR2DS4 deletion variant in the human that predicts a soluble KIR molecule analogous to the KIR1D molecule observed in the rhesus monkey. Tissue Antigens. 2002;60:254-258.

86.        Yawata M, Yawata N, McQueen KL, et al. Predominance of group A KIR haplotypes in Japanese associated with diverse NK cell repertoires of KIR expression. Immunogenetics. 2002;54:543-550.

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88.        Valiante NM, Uhrberg M, Shilling HG, et al. Functionally and structurally distinct NK cell receptor repertoires in the peripheral blood of two human donors. Immunity. 1997;7:739-751.

89.        Katz G, Gazit R, Arnon TI, et al. MHC class I-independent recognition of NK-activating receptor KIR2DS4. J Immunol. 2004;173:1819-1825.

90.        Vilches C, Pando MJ, Rajalingam R, Gardiner CM, Parham P. Discovery of two novel variants of KIR2DS5 reveals this gene to be a common component of human KIR 'B' haplotypes. Tissue Antigens. 2000;56:453-456.

91.        Rajagopalan S, Long EO. A human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G-specific receptor expressed on all natural killer cells. J Exp Med. 1999;189:1093-1100.

92.        Chan H-W, Kurago ZB, Stewart CA, et al. DNA methylation maintains allele-specific KIR gene expression in human natural killer cells. J Exp Med. 2003;197:245-255.

93.        Biassoni R, Cantoni C, Pende D, et al. Human natural killer cell receptors and co-receptors. Immunol Rev. 2001;181:203-214.

94.        Rajagopalan S, Fu J, Long EO. Cutting edge: induction of IFN-gamma production but not cytotoxicity by the killer cell Ig-like receptor KIR2DL4 (CD158d) in resting NK cells. J Immunol. 2001;167:1877-1881.

95.        Faure M, Long EO. KIR2DL4 (CD158d), an NK cell-activating receptor with inhibitory potential. J Immunol. 2002;168:6208-6214.

96.        Kikuchi-Maki A, Yusa S, Catina TL, Campbell KS. KIR2DL4 is an IL-2-regulated NK cell receptor that exhibits limited expression in humans but triggers strong IFN-gamma production. J Immunol. 2003;171:3415-3425.

97.        Goodridge JP, Witt CS, Christiansen FT, Warren HS. KIR2DL4 (CD158d) genotype influences expression and function in NK cells. J Immunol. 2003;171:1768-1774.

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101.      Gomez-Lozano N, Gardiner CM, Parham P, Vilches C. Some human KIR haplotypes contain two KIR2DL5 genes: KIR2DL5A and KIR2DL5B. Immunogenetics. 2002;54:314-319.

102.      Vyas Y, Selvakumar A, Steffens U, Dupont B. Multiple transcripts of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor family, KIR3DL1 (NKB1), are expressed by natural killer cells of a single individual. Tissue Antigens. 1998;52:510-519.

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107.      Uhrberg M, Valiante NM, Young NT, Lanier LL, Phillips JH, Parham P. The repertoire of killer cell Ig-like receptor and CD94:NKG2A receptors in T cells: Clones sharing identical alphabeta TCR rearrangement express highly diverse killer cell Ig-like receptor patterns. J Immunol. 2001;166:3923-3932.

108.      Uhrberg M. Shaping the human NK cell repertoire: an epigenetic glance at KIR gene regulation. Mol Immunol. 2005;42:471-475.

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111.      Frohn C, Schlenke P, Kirchner H. The repertoire of HLA-Cw-specific NK cell receptors CD158 a/b (EB6 and GL183) in individuals with different HLA phenotypes. Immunology. 1997;92:567-570.

112.      Tanamachi DM, Hanke T, Takizawa H, Jamieson AM, Raulet DR. Expression of natural killer receptor alleles at different Ly49 loci occurs independently and is regulated by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. J Exp Med. 2001;193:307-315.

113.      Santourlidis S, Trompeter HI, Weinhold S, et al. Crucial role of DNA methylation in determination of clonally distributed killer cell Ig-like receptor expression patterns in NK cells. J Immunol. 2002;169:4253-4261.

114.      Trompeter HI, Gomez-Lozano N, Santourlidis S, et al. Three structurally and functionally divergent kinds of promoters regulate expression of clonally distributed killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR), of KIR2DL4, and of KIR3DL3. J Immunol. 2005;174:4135-4143.

115.      Leung W, Iyengar R, Triplett B, et al. Comparison of killer Ig-like receptor genotyping and phenotyping for selection of allogeneic blood stem cell donors. J Immunol. 2005;174:6540-6545.

116.      Gardiner CM, Guethlein LA, Shilling HG, et al. Different NK cell surface phenotypes defined by the DX9 antibody are due to KIR3DL1 gene polymorphism. J Immunol. 2001;166:2992-3001.

117.      Mingari MC, Vitale C, Schiavetti F, et al. HLA-class I-specific inhibitory receptors of NK type on a subset of human T cells. Chem Immunol. 1996;64:135-145.

118.      Young NT, Uhrberg M. KIR expression shapes cytotoxic repertoires: a developmental program of survival. Trends Immunol. 2002;23:71-75.

119.      Mingari MC, Schiavetti F, Ponte M, et al. Human CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets that express HLA class I-specific inhibitory receptors represent oligoclonally or monoclonally expanded cell populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12433-12438.

120.      Young NT, Uhrberg M, Phillips JH, Lanier LL, Parham P. Differential Expression of Leukocyte Receptor Complex-Encoded Ig-Like Receptors Correlates with the Transition from Effector to Memory CTL. J Immunol. 2001;166:3933-3941.

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123.      Huard B, Karlsson L. KIR expression on self-reactive CD8+ T cells is controlled by T-cell receptor engagement. Nature. 2000;403:325-328.

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125.      Binstadt BA, Brumbaugh KM, Dick CJ, et al. Sequential involvement of Lck and SHP-1 with MHC-recognizing receptors on NK cells inhibits FcR-initiated tyrosine kinase activation. Immunity. 1996;5:629-638.

126.      Lanier LL, Corliss BC, Wu J, Leong C, Phillips JH. Immunoreceptor DAP12 bearing a tyrosine-based activation motif is involved in activating NK cells. Nature. 1998;391:703-707.

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128.      Diefenbach A, Tomasello E, Lucas M, et al. Selective associations with signaling proteins determine stimulatory versus costimulatory activity of NKG2D. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:1142-1149.

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131.      Phillips JH, Chang C, Mattson J, Gumperz JE, Parham P, Lanier LL. CD94 and a novel associated protein (94AP) form a NK cell receptor involved in the recognition of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C allotypes. Immunity. 1996;5:163-172.

132.      Vance RE, Kraft JR, Altman JD, Jensen PE, Raulet DH. Mouse CD94/NKG2A is a natural killer cell receptor for the nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule Qa-1(b). J Exp Med. 1998;188:1841-1848.

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134.      Renedo M, Arce I, Montgomery K, et al. A sequence-ready physical map of the region containing the human natural killer gene complex on chromosome 12p12.3-p13.2. Genomics. 2000;65:129-136.

135.      Soderstrom K, Corliss B, Lanier LL, Phillips JH. CD94/NKG2 is the predominant inhibitory receptor involved in recognition of HLA-G by decidual and peripheral blood NK cells. J Immunol. 1997;159:1072-1075.

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137.      Braud VM, Allan DS, O'Callaghan CA, et al. HLA-E binds to natural killer cell receptors CD94/NKG2A, B and C. Nature. 1998;391:795-799.

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139.      Lohwasser S, Hande P, Mager DL, Takei F. Cloning of murine NKG2A, B and C: second family of C-type lectin receptors on murine NK cells. Eur J Immunol. 1999;29:755-761.

140.      Vance RE, Jamieson AM, Raulet DH. Recognition of the class Ib molecule Qa-1(b) by putative activating receptors CD94/NKG2C and CD94/NKG2E on mouse natural killer cells. J Exp Med. 1999;190:1801-1812.

141.      Maier S, Grzeschik M, Weiss EH, Ulbrecht M. Implications of HLA-E allele expression and different HLA-E ligand diversity for the regulation of NK cells. Hum Immunol. 2000;61:1059-1065.

142.      Roda-Navarro P, Arce I, Renedo M, Montgomery K, Kucherlapati R, Fernandez-Ruiz E. Human KLRF1, a novel member of the killer cell lectin-like receptor gene family: molecular characterization, genomic structure, physical mapping to the NK gene complex and expression analysis. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:568-576.

143.      Sivori S, Parolini S, Marcenaro E, Millo R, Bottino C, Moretta A. Triggering receptors involved in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity against choriocarcinoma cell lines. Hum Immunol. 2000;61:1055-1058.

144.      Cerwenka A, Lanier LL. Natural killer cells, viruses and cancer. Nat Rev Immunol. 2001;1:41-49.

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Further References:

- Yu J, Heller G, Chewning J, Kim S, Yokoyama WM, Hsu KC. Hierarchy of the human natural killer cell response is determined by class and quantity of inhibitory receptors for self-HLA-B and HLA-C ligands. J Immunol 2007;179(9):5977-89.

- Gourraud PA, Meenagh A, Anne Cambon-Thomsen A, Middleton D. Linkage disequilibrium organization of the human KIR superlocus. Immunogenetics 2010;62(11-12):729-40 (open access)






See also:

Shao W et al. MICA intron 1 sequences of conserved extended HLA haplotypes: implications for sequencing-based typing. Genes & Immunity 2004;5:371-4

MICA Polymorphisms in Conserved Extended Haplotypes - EFI 2006 Poster (see also Dorak, 2006)


Online Resources

KIR Nomenclature Report 2002: Immunogenetics (PDF); Eur J Immunogenet; Tissue Antigens; Hum Immunol

KIR Gene Cluster (Online NCBI Publication) by Carrington & Norman

KIR Sequence Database ( IPD )

KIR Sequence Database ( NCBI-dbLRC ) 

IMGT Tutorial on LRC and KIR 

HGNC KIR Gene Family Nomenclature

IHW NK Receptors and HLA Polymorphism

NCBI ENTREZ Gene for most current nomenclature on gene names and further details

Natural Killer Cell Recognition of Target Cells by David Hoskin

NK Cell Information (Collaborative NK Cell Encyclopedia) including NK Cell Journal Screen 


M.Tevfik Dorak, M.D., Ph.D.

25 July 2011


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